India Adventure Traveling Exploring North Indian State Haryana

Haryana Backpacking Travel Guide

 

Haryana is one of beautiful North Indian State. The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar Capital of this state is Chandigrah which is also the capital of Punjab. It has its own unique traditional folk music, folk dances, saang, cinema, belief system such as Jathera, and arts such as Phulkari and Shisha embroidery. Haryana become state on 1-Nov-1966. Among the world’s oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old.

 

 

 

Vibudh Shridhar:

 

He was well known as Vibudha Shridhara & was born on 1189. He was an accomplished Apabhramsha writer and poet in North India. He is the first known Agrawal author. He was died on 1230.

 

Apabhraṃśa:

 

It is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages. In Indology, it is used as an umbrella term for the dialects forming the transition between the late Middle and the early Modern Indo-Aryan languages, spanning the period between the 6th and 13th centuries CE. However, these dialects are conventionally included in the Middle Indo-Aryan period.Apabhraṃśa in Sanskrit literally means “corrupt” or “non-grammatical language”, that which deviates from the norm of Sanskrit grammar. Apabhraṃśa literature is a valuable source for the history of North India for the period spanning the 12th to 16th centuries. The term Prakrit, which includes Pali, is also used as a cover term for the vernaculars of North India that were spoken perhaps as late as the 4th to 8th centuries, but some scholars use the term for the entire Middle Indo-Aryan period. Middle Indo-Aryan languages gradually transformed into Apabhraṃśa dialects, which were used until about the 13th century. The Apabhraṃśas later evolved into Modern Indo-Aryan languages. The boundaries of these periods are somewhat hazy, not strictly chronological. Modern North Indian languages are often considered to have begun to develop a distinct identity around the 11th century – while Apabhraṃśas were still in use – and became fully distinct by the end of the 12th century.

 

Panipat
Kabuli Bagh

 

Rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country’s capital Delhi on three sides,consequently a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development. The Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago.Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani, Dadri, Gurgaon, Hansi, Hisar, Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa, Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak and Sonepat in Haryana. After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Sunam, Kaithal and Panipat. When he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were mostly non-Muslims, fled and were chased by a detachment of Timur’s troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he traveled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred. The Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi. They tried to resist but were defeated and fled. Timur’s army pursued and killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners. He then sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered. From there he proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were “fire-worshippers” according to Yazdi, and had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had already fled. He then marched on to Loni fort. The area that is now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat (1526), Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat (1556), Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbar’s forces twice at Agra and the Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become the last Hindu Emperor of India with a formal coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556. In the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.Desi Haryanvi folk music (Haryanvi country folk music) The country-side or desi (native) form of Haryanvi music is based on Raag Bhairvi, Raag Bhairav, Raag Kafi, Raag Jaijaivanti, Raag Jhinjhoti and Raag Pahadi and used for celebrating community bonhomie to sing seasonal songs, ballads, ceremonial songs (wedding, etc.) and related religious legendary tales such as Puran Bhagat. Relationship and songs celebrating love and life are sung in medium pitch. Ceremonial and religious songs are sung in low pitch. Young girls and women usually sing entertaining and fast seasonal, love, relationship and friendship related songs such as Phagan,Katak, Samman,bande-bandi,sathne. Older women usually sing devotional Mangal Geet and ceremonial songs such as Bhajan, Bhat,Sagai, Ban, Kuan-Poojan,Sanjhi and Holi festival. Northern Haryana has several north-east to south-west flowing rivers originating from the Sivalik Hills of Himalayas, such as Ghaggar-Hakra,Chautang, Tangri river,Kaushalya river,Markanda River, Sarsuti, Dangri,Somb river. Haryana’s main seasonal river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage, rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district, passes through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. The seasonal Markanda River, known as the Aruna in ancient times, originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala, and swells into a raging torrent during monsoon is notorious for its devastating power, carries its surplus water on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasuti and later the Ghagga. Southern Haryana has several south-east to north-west flowing seasonal rivulets originating from the Aravalli Range in and around the hills in Mewat region, including Sahibi River,Dohan river,Krishnavati river and Indori river, these once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswati river.

 

Aravalli Range:

 

It’s approximately 430 miles in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana,through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat. It consists of two main sequences formed in Proterozoic eon, metasedimentary rock and metavolcanic rock sequences of the Aravalli Supergroup and Delhi Supergroup. These two supergroups rest over the Archean Bhilwara Gneissic Complex basement, which is a gneissic basement formed during the archean eon 4 Ga ago. It started as an inverted basin, that rifted and pulled apart into granitoid basement, initially during Aravalli passive rifting around 2.5 to 2.0 Ga years ago and then during Delhi active rifting around 1.9 to 1.6 Ga years ago. It started with rifting of a rigid Archaean continent banded gneissic complex around 2.2 Ga with the coexisting formation of the Bhilwara aulacogen in its eastern part and eventual rupturing and separation of the continent along a line parallel to the Rakhabdev (Rishabhdev) lineament to the west, simultaneous development of a passive continental margin with the undersea shelf rise sediments of the Aravalli-Jharol belts depositing on the attenuated crust on the eastern flank of the separated continent, subsequent destruction of the continental margin by accretion of the Delhi island arc from the west around 1.5 Ga.

 

Aravalli Mountains
Hills

 

This tectonic plates collision event involved early thrusting with partial obduction of the oceanic crust along the Rakhabdev lineament, flattening and eventual wrenching parallel to the collision zone. Associated mafic igneous rocks show both continental and oceanic tholeiitic geochemistry from phanerozoic eon with rift-related magmatic rock formations. The archean basement had served as a rigid indentor which controlled the overall wedge shaped geometry of the orogen. Lithology of area shows that the base rocks of Aravalli are of Mewar Gneiss formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally sedimentary rock with earliest life form that were formed during the archean eon, these contain fossils of unicellular organism such as green algae and cyanobacteria in stromatolitic carbonate ocean reefs formed during the paleoproterozoic era. Sedimentary exhalative deposits of base metal sulfide ores formed extensively along several, long, linear zones in the Bhilwara aulacogen or produced local concentration in the rifted Aravalli continental margin, where rich stromatolitic phosphorites also formed.
Tectonic evolution of the Aravalli Mountains shows Mewar Geniss rocks are overlain by Delhi Supergroup type of rocks that also have post-Aravalli intrusions. Metal sulfide ores were formed in two different epocs, lead and zinc sulfide ores were formed in the sedimentary rocks around 1.8 Ga years ago during Paleoproterozoic phase. The tectonic setting of Zinc-lead-copper sulfides mineralization in Delhi supergroup rocks in Haryana-Delhi were formed in mantle plume volcanic action around 1 Ga years ago covering Haryana and Rajasthan during mesoproterozoic. In the southern part of Aravalli supergroup arc base metal sulfides were generated near the subduction zone on the western fringe and in zones of back-arc extension to the south-east. Continued subduction produced W-Sn mineralisation in S-type felsic plutons and asbestos, apatite, kyanite and beryl.

Below are some famous Wildlife Sanctuaries of Haryana.

Sultanpur National Park & Bird Sanctuary
Kalesar National Park
Bhindawas Wildlife & Bird Sanctuary
Khaparwas Wildlife Bird Sanctuary
Nahar Wildlife Sanctuary
Chhilchhila (Seonthi Forest Reserve) Wildlife Bird Sanctuary
Saraswati (Seonsar Forest) Wildlife Sanctuary
Abubshahar Wildlife Sanctuary
Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary
Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary (& Vulture Breeding Center)
Bir Bara Ban Wildlife Sanctuary
Mangar Bani Forest
Chinkara Breeding Centre
Crocodile Breeding Centre
Black Buck Breeding Centre, Pipli Mini Zoo
Peacock & Chinkara Breading Centre, Jhabuwa
Pheasant Breeding Centre Morni in Panchkula
Deer Park, Hisar

In our future travel post we will explore more about haryana.

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