How Microsoft Windows 10 Makes Our Digital Life Easy And Powerful

Technology Guide About Microsoft Windows 10

 

Microsoft Windows 10 Creates a revolution in current era of Advance Technology. Microsoft Windows 10 is a series of PCOS { Personal Computer Operating Sysytem }. The official released date is July-29-2015. It receives new releases on an ongoing basis, which are available at no additional cost to users. Devices in enterprise environments can receive these updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones that only receive critical updates, such as security patches, over their ten-year lifespan of extended support. Most notable features is support for universal apps, an expansion of the Metro-style apps first introduced in Windows 8. Universal apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code‍—‌including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Mixed Reality. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices‍—‌particularly on 2-in-1 PCs, both interfaces include an updated Start menu which incorporates elements of Windows 7’s traditional Start menu with the tiles of Windows 8. Windows 10 also introduced the Microsoft Edge web browser, a virtual desktop system, a window and desktop management feature called Task View, support for fingerprint and face recognition login, new security features for enterprise environments, and DirectX 12.Critics praised Microsoft’s decision to provide a desktop-oriented interface in line with previous versions of Windows, contrasting the tablet-oriented approach of 8, although Windows 10’s touch-oriented user interface mode was criticized for containing regressions upon the touch-oriented interface of Windows 8. Critics also praised the improvements to Windows 10’s bundled software over Windows 8.1, Xbox Live integration, as well as the functionality and capabilities of the Cortana personal assistant and the replacement of Internet Explorer with Microsoft Edge. However, media outlets have been critical of changes to operating system behaviors, including mandatory update installation, privacy concerns over data collection performed by the OS for Microsoft and its partners and the adware-like tactics used to promote the operating system on its release. Windows 10 harmonizes the user experience and functionality between different classes of device, and addresses shortcomings in the user interface that were introduced in Windows 8. Windows 10 Mobile, the successor to Windows Phone 8.1, shares some user interface elements and apps with its PC counterpart. The Windows Runtime app ecosystem was revised into the Universal Windows Platform .These universal apps are made to run across multiple platforms and device classes, including smartphones, tablets, Xbox One consoles, and other compatible Windows 10 devices. Windows apps share code across platforms, have responsive designs that adapt to the needs of the device and available inputs, can synchronize data between Windows 10 devices, and are distributed through Microsoft Store. Developers can allow “cross-buys”, where purchased licenses for an app apply to all of the user’s compatible devices, rather than only the one they purchased on. On Windows 10, Microsoft Store serves as a unified storefront for apps, video content, and ebooks. Windows 10 also allows web apps and desktop software to be packaged for distribution on Microsoft Store. Desktop software distributed through Windows Store is packaged using the App-V system to allow sandboxing.

 

 

 

A new iteration of the Start menu is used on the Windows 10 desktop, with a list of places and other options on the left side, and tiles representing applications on the right. The menu can be resized, and expanded into a full-screen display, which is the default option in Tablet mode. A new virtual desktop system was added. A feature known as Task View displays all open windows and allows users to switch between them, or switch between multiple workspaces. Universal apps, which previously could be used only in full screen mode, can now be used in self-contained windows similarly to other programs. Program windows can now be snapped to quadrants of the screen by dragging them to the corner.  When a window is snapped to one side of the screen, Task View appears and the user is prompted to choose a second window to fill the unused side of the screen. Windows’ system icons were also changed. Charms have been removed; their functionality in universal apps is accessed from an App commands menu on their title bar. In its place is Action Center, which displays notifications and settings toggles. It is accessed by clicking an icon in the notification area, or dragging from the right of the screen. Notifications can be synced between multiple devices. The Settings app was refreshed and now includes more options that were previously exclusive to the desktop Control Panel. It is designed to adapt its user interface based on the type of device being used and available input methods. It offers two separate user interface modes: a user interface optimized for mouse and keyboard, and a “Tablet mode” designed for touchscreens. Users can toggle between these two modes at any time, and Windows can prompt or automatically switch when certain events occur, such as disabling Tablet mode on a tablet if a keyboard or mouse is plugged in, or when a 2-in-1 PC is switched to its laptop state. In Tablet mode, programs default to a maximized view, and the taskbar contains a back button and hides buttons for opened or pinned programs; Task View is used instead to switch between programs. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally. Windows 10 incorporates multi-factor authentication technology based upon standards developed by the FIDO Alliance. The operating system includes improved support for biometric authentication through the Windows Hello platform. Devices with supported cameras allow users to log in with iris or face recognition, similarly to Kinect. Devices with supported readers allow users to log in through fingerprint recognition. Support was also added for palm-vein scanning through a partnership with Fujitsu in February 2018. Credentials are stored locally and protected using asymmetric encryption. When Windows 10 was first introduced, multi-factor authentication was provided by two components: Windows Hello and Passport. Later, Passport was merged into Windows Hello.The enterprise version of Windows 10 offers additional security features; administrators can set up policies for the automatic encryption of sensitive data, selectively block applications from accessing encrypted data, and enable Device Guard‍—‌a system which allows administrators to enforce a high security environment by blocking the execution of software that is not digitally signed by a trusted vendor or Microsoft. Device Guard is designed to protect against zero-day exploits, and runs inside a hypervisor so that its operation remains separated from the operating system itself. Win32 console windows can now be resized without any restrictions, can be made to cover the full screen by pressing Alt+↵ Enter, and can use standard keyboard shortcuts, such as those for cut, copy, and paste. Other features such as word wrap and transparency were also added. These functions can be disabled to revert to the legacy console, if needed. The Anniversary Update adds Windows Subsystem for Linux, which allows the installation of a user space environment from a supported Linux distribution that runs natively on Windows. The subsystem translates Linux system calls that the Linux system uses to those of the Windows NT kernel. The environment can execute the Bash shell and 64-bit command line programs. Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa. Linux distributions for Windows Subsystem for Linux are obtained through Microsoft Store. The feature initially supported an Ubuntu-based environment; Microsoft announced in May 2017 that it would add Fedora and Open-SUSE environment options as well. To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1.5 GB for 32-bit systems and 2.6 GB for 64-bit systems. The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs, which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance. Furthermore, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB. These functions replace the WIMBoot mode introduced on Windows 8.1 Update, which allowed OEMs to configure low-capacity devices with flash-based storage to use Windows system files out of the compressed WIM image typically used for installation and recovery. Windows 10 also includes a function in its Settings app that allows users to view a breakdown of how their device’s storage capacity is being used by different types of files, and determine whether certain types of files are saved to internal storage or an SD card by default. Windows 10 introduces a new default web browser, Microsoft Edge. It features a new standards-compliant rendering engine forked from Trident, annotation tools, and offers integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows 10. Internet Explorer 11 is maintained on Windows 10 for compatibility purposes, but is deprecated in favor of Edge and will no longer be actively developed. Windows 10 incorporates Microsoft’s intelligent personal assistant, Cortana, which was first introduced with Windows Phone 8.1 in 2014. Cortana replaced Windows’ embedded search feature, supporting both text and voice input. Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing, setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting reminders or sending emails. Cortana is implemented as a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed to a single button. Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services. Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions. The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child’s computer usage. Unlike previous versions of Windows, child accounts in a family must be associated with a Microsoft account‍—‌which allows these settings to apply across all Windows 10 devices that a particular child is using. Windows 10 also offers the Wi-Fi Sense feature originating from Windows Phone 8.1; users can optionally have their device automatically connect to suggested open hotspots, and share their home network’s password with contacts so they may automatically connect to the network on a Windows 10 device without needing to manually enter its password. Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers, and sent to the devices of the selected contacts. Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network. Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on 802.1X-encrypted networks. Adding “_optout” at the end of the SSID will also block the corresponding network from being used for this feature. Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November 2015 update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone. These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile. Windows 10 provides heavier integration with the Xbox ecosystem. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox app, which allows users to browse their game library, and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut, allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere. Windows 10 also allows users to control and play games from an Xbox One console over a local network.The Xbox Live SDK allows application developers to incorporate Xbox Live functionality into their apps, and future wireless Xbox One accessories, such as controllers, are supported on Windows with an adapter. Microsoft also intends to allow cross-buys and save synchronization between Xbox One and Windows 10 versions of games; Microsoft Studios games such as ReCore and Quantum Break are intended as being exclusive to Windows 10 and Xbox One. Candy Crush Saga and Microsoft Solitaire Collection are also automatically installed upon installation of Windows 10. Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced game bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the hard disk. Windows 10 adds FLAC and HEVC codecs and support for the Matroska media container, allowing these formats to be opened in Windows Media Player and other applications. Windows 10 includes DirectX 12, alongside WDDM 2.0. Unveiled March 2014 at GDC, DirectX 12 aims to provide “console-level efficiency” with “closer to the metal” access to hardware resources, and reduced CPU and graphics driver overhead. Most of the performance improvements are achieved through low-level programming, which allow developers to use resources more efficiently and reduce single-threaded CPU bottlenecking caused by abstraction through higher level APIs. DirectX 12 will also feature support for vendor agnostic multi-GPU setups.WDDM 2.0 introduces a new virtual memory management and allocation system to reduce workload on the kernel-mode driver. Windows Media Center was discontinued, and is uninstalled when upgrading from a previous version of Windows. Upgraded Windows installations with Media Center will receive the paid app Windows DVD Player free of charge for a limited, but unspecified, time. Microsoft had previously relegated Media Center and integrated DVD playback support to a paid add-on beginning on Windows 8 due to the cost of licensing the required DVD playback related patents, and the increasing number of PC devices that have no optical drives. The OneDrive built-in sync client, which was introduced in Windows 8.1, no longer supports offline placeholders for online-only files in Windows 10.This functionality was re-added in Windows 10 version 1709, under the name “OneDrive Files On-Demand”. Users are no longer able to synchronize Start menu layouts across all devices associated with a Microsoft account. A Microsoft developer justified the change by explaining that a user may have different applications they want to emphasize on each device that they use, rather than use the same configuration across each device. The ability to automatically install a universal app across all devices associated with an account was also removed. Web browsers can no longer set themselves as a user’s default without further intervention; changing the default web browser must be performed manually by the user from Settings’ “Default apps” page, ostensibly to prevent browser hijacking. Parental controls no longer support browsers other than Internet Explorer and Edge, and the ability to control browsing by a whitelist was removed. Also removed were the ability to control local accounts, and the ability to scan a machine for applications to allow and block. The Food & Drink, Health & Fitness, and Travel apps have been discontinued. Drivers for floppy drives are no longer integrated and must be downloaded separately. While all Windows 10 editions include fonts that provide broad language support, some fonts for Middle Eastern and East Asian languages are no longer included with the standard installation to reduce storage space used, but are available without charge as optional font packages. When software invokes text in languages other than those for which the system is configured and does not use the Windows font fallback mechanisms designed always to display legible glyphs, Windows displays unsupported characters as a default “not defined” glyph, a square or rectangular box, or a box with a dot, question mark or “x” inside. Windows Defender could be integrated into File Explorer’s context menu in Windows 8.x, but Microsoft initially removed integration from Windows 10, restoring it in Windows 10 build 10571 in response to user feedback. User control over Windows Updates was removed. In earlier versions users could opt for updates to be installed automatically, or to be notified so they could update as and when they wished, or not to be notified; and they could choose which updates to install, using information about the updates. Windows 10 Pro and Enterprise users may be configured by an administrator to defer updates, but only for a limited time. Under the Windows end-user license agreement, users consent to the automatic installation of all updates, features and drivers provided by the service, and implicitly consent “without any additional notice” to the possibility of features being modified or removed.

 

 

 

 

Features removed in version 1607:

 

Cortana can no longer be fully hidden, as it was made the default search experience in the Windows shell for all users . As with previous builds, users must still opt-in and grant permission for the software to perform data collection and tracking in order to fully enable Cortana’s personalized features. If this functionality is not enabled, Cortana operates in a feature-limited mode with basic web and device search functionality, nearly identical to the non-Cortana search experience on previous builds. In April 2016, Microsoft announced that it will no longer allow Cortana web searches to be executed through any other web browser and search engine combination but Microsoft Edge and Bing, intentionally disregarding user settings. Microsoft stated that circumvention of these settings results in a “compromised experience that is less reliable and predictable”, and that only Microsoft Edge supports direct integration with Cortana within the browser itself. Certain features related to embedded advertising in the operating system can no longer be disabled on non-enterprise versions of Windows 10 using management settings such as Group Policy, including disabling Microsoft Store and Universal Windows Platform apps, “Microsoft consumer experiences” Windows Tips, turning off the lock screen or enforcing a specific lock screen background. Critics argued that this change was meant to discourage Windows 10 Pro from being used in business environments, since Microsoft was making it less attractive by reducing the amount of control administrators have over their devices’ environment without using an enterprise version of Windows 10. The ability to share Wi-Fi credentials with other contacts via Wi-Fi Sense was removed; Wi-Fi passwords can still be synced between devices tied to the same Microsoft account. The ability to change the Exit Windows, Windows Logoff and Windows Logon sounds was hidden in Version 1607, although these features can be enabled by going to the Windows Registry and under the EventLabels folder and setting the value to 0. The ability to show the All Programs list on-click from Start Menu was removed. Instead, they will show automatically once the Start button is pressed. Windows Update no longer shows if the current updates have been disabled or enabled by Administrators.

 

Features removed in 1703 & 1709:

 

Windows Update will no longer postpone the download of certain critical updates if the device is connected to a network that was designated by the user as being “metered”. Although meant to prevent the updates from utilizing data allotments, this behavior had been used as a workaround by users to avoid the requirement for all updates to be automatically downloaded. Devices containing an Intel Atom “Clover Trail” system-on-chip are incompatible with Version 1703, and cannot be upgraded to this version of Windows 10.Server Message Block version 1 is disabled by default on version 1709. The Home and Pro editions only disable the SMB1 server, but retain the SMB1 client, so they can connect to SMB1 network shares. The Enterprise and Education editions disable the SMB1 entirely. This version of the 30-year-old protocol gained notoriety in the Wanna-Cry ransomware attack, although Microsoft had been discouraging its use even before. The Interactive Service Detection service, introduced in Windows Vista to combat shatter attacks, is removed in 1703. Syskey was removed in 1709, with Microsoft recommending the use of Bit-locker instead.

 

Features removed in 1803:

Home-Group, a home network sharing feature first introduced in Windows 7, is removed. It is replaced with a new feature called “Nearby Sharing.
Windows 10 is available in five main editions for personal computer devices, of which the Home and Pro versions are sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Home is aimed at home users, while Pro is aimed at small businesses. Each edition of Windows 10 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Pro adds additional networking and security features such as Bit-Locker, Device Guard, Windows Update for Business, and the ability to join a domain. The remaining editions, Enterprise and Education, contain additional features aimed towards business environments, and are only available through volume licensing. As part of Microsoft’s unification strategies, Windows products that are based on Windows 10’s common platform but meant for specialized platforms are marketed as editions of the operating system, rather than as separate product lines. An updated version of Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system for smartphones, and also tablets, was branded as Windows 10 Mobile. Editions of Enterprise and Mobile will also be produced for embedded systems, along with Windows 10 IoT Core, which is designed specifically for use in small footprint, low-cost devices and Internet of Things scenarios and is similar to Windows Embedded. On May 2, 2017, Microsoft unveiled Windows 10 S, a feature-limited version of Windows 10 which was designed primarily for devices in the education market, such as the Surface Laptop that Microsoft also unveiled at this time. The OS restricts software installation to applications obtained from Microsoft Store; the device may be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro for a fee to enable unrestricted software installation. As a time-limited promotion, Microsoft stated that this upgrade would be free on the Surface Laptop until March 31, 2018.Windows 10 S also contains a faster initial setup and login process, and allows devices to be provisioned using a USB drive with the Windows Intune for Education platform. In March 2018, Microsoft announced that Windows 10 S would be deprecated due to market confusion, and would be replaced by “S Mode”, an OEM option wherein Windows defaults to only allowing applications to be installed from Microsoft Store, but does not require payment in order to disable these restrictions. During upgrades, Windows 10 licenses are not tied directly to a product key. Instead, the license status of the system’s current installation of Windows is migrated, and a “Digital license” is generated during the activation process, which is bound to the hardware information collected during the process. If Windows 10 is reinstalled cleanly and there have not been any significant hardware changes since installation, the online activation process will automatically recognize the system’s digital entitlement if no product key is entered during installations. However, unique product keys are still distributed within retail copies of Windows 10. As with previous non-volume-licensed versions of Windows, significant hardware changes will invalidate the digital entitlement, and require Windows to be re-activated.

 

Updates:

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Update does not allow the selective installation of updates, and all updates are downloaded and installed automatically. Users can only choose whether their system will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or be notified to schedule a reboot. If a wireless network is designated as “Metered”—a function which automatically reduces the operating system’s background network activity to conserve limits on Internet usage, most updates are not downloaded until the device is connected to a non-metered network. Redstone 2 allows wired networks to be designated as metered, but Windows may still download certain updates while connected to a metered network. Updates can cause compatibility or other problems; a Microsoft troubleshooter program allows bad updates to be uninstalled. Windows Update can also use a peer to peer system for distributing updates; by default, users’ bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers.
Users can instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network. The original RTM release of Windows 10 receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions. Microsoft’s support lifecycle policy for the operating system notes that “Updates are cumulative, with each update built upon all of the updates that preceded it”, that “a device needs to install the latest update to remain supported”, and that a device’s ability to receive future updates will depend on hardware compatibility, driver availability, and whether the device is within the OEM’s “support period”‍—‌a new aspect not accounted for in lifecycle policies for previous versions. This policy was first invoked in 2017 to block Intel Clover Trail devices from receiving the Creators Update, as Microsoft asserts that future updates “require additional hardware support to provide the best possible experience”, and that Intel no longer provided support or drivers for the platform. Microsoft stated that these devices would no longer receive feature updates, but would still receive security updates through January 2023. Windows 10 is often described by Microsoft as being a “service”, as it receives regular feature updates that contain new features and other changes. In April 2017, Microsoft stated that in the future, these updates would be released twice a year every March and September. The pace at which feature updates are received by devices is dependent on which release channel is used. The default branch for all users of Windows 10 Home and Pro is “Semi-Annual Channel” , which receives stable builds after they are publicly released by Microsoft. Each build of Windows 10 is supported for 18 months after its original release. In enterprise environments, Microsoft officially intends that this branch be used for “targeted” deployments of newly-released stable versions, so that they can be evaluated and tested on a limited number of devices before a wider deployment. Once a stable build is certified by Microsoft and its partners as being suitable for broad deployment, the build is then released on the “Semi-Annual Channel” ;which is supported by the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows 10. Semi-Annual Channel receives stable builds on a four-month delay from their release on the Targeted channel, Administrators can also use the “Windows Update for Business” system, as well as existing tools such as WSUS and System Center Configuration Manager, to organize structured deployments of feature updates across their networks. The Windows Insider branches receive unstable builds as they are released; it is divided into two channels, “Fast”, and “Slow”. Enterprise licensees may use the Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB edition, where “LTSB” stands for “long-term servicing branch”. LTSB milestones of Windows 10 are designed for long-term deployments in specialized environments, and only receive quality of life updates. Each LTSB milestone is given a full, 10-year support lifecycle. Due to Microsoft’s intended use cases for LTSB builds, certain features, including most Cortana functionality, Microsoft Store, and bundled apps, are excluded from LTSB.Microsoft director Stella Chernyak explained that “we have businesses [that] may have mission-critical environments where we respect the fact they want to test and stabilize the environment for a long time.”Two LTSB builds have been released, correlating with the 1507 and 1607 versions of Windows 10; Microsoft stated in 2017 that the next LTSB build will be released in 2019.In July 2017, Microsoft announced changes in the terminology for Windows branches, as part of its effort to unify the update cadence with that of Office 365 ProPlus and Windows Server 2016.The branch system now defines two paces of upgrade deployment in enterprise environments, “targeted” initial deployment of a new version on selected systems immediately after its stable release for final testing, and “broad” deployment afterwards. Hence, “Current Branch” is now known as “Semi-Annual Channel “, and “Current Branch for Business” for broad deployment is now referred to as “Semi-Annual Channel”.

 

Redstone 4″ (RS4):

The sixth stable build of Windows 10 is called version 1803. It was codenamed “Redstone 4” during development. This version is installed by the April 2018 Update, which was released as a manual download on April 30, 2018, with a broad rollout coming on May 8, 2018.This update was originally meant to be released on April 10 but was delayed due to a bug which could “increase chances of a Blue Screen of Death”. One of the most highlighted features of this update was the “Timeline” feature which allowed the users to see a history of their activity in their PC in the past and continue from where they left out. This works on most of the Microsoft Store apps and select sideloaded apps namely WinRAR and older versions of Microsoft Office.

 

Windows 10 System Requirements:

The basic hardware requirements to install Windows 10 are the same as for Windows 8.1 and Windows 8, and only slightly higher than Windows 7. The 64-bit versions require a CPU that supports certain instructions. Devices with low storage capacity must provide a USB flash drive or SD card with sufficient storage for temporary files during upgrades. Some pre-built devices may be described as “certified” by Microsoft. Certified tablets must include Power, Volume up, and Volume down keys; ⊞ Win and Rotation lock keys are no longer required. As with Windows 8, all certified devices must ship with UEFI Secure Boot enabled by default. Unlike Windows 8, OEMs are no longer required to make Secure Boot settings user-configurable, meaning that devices may optionally be locked to run only Microsoft-signed operating systems. A supported infrared-illuminated camera is required for Windows Hello face authentication, and a supported fingerprint reader is required for Windows Hello fingerprint authentication. Device Guard requires a UEFI system with no third-party certificates loaded, and CPU virtualization extensions enabled in firmware. Beginning with Intel Kaby Lake and AMD Bristol Ridge, Windows 10 is the only version of Windows that Microsoft will officially support on newer CPU microarchitectures. Terry Myerson stated that Microsoft did not want to make further investments in optimizing older versions of Windows and associated software for newer generations of processors. These policies were criticized by the media, who especially noted that Microsoft was refusing to support newer hardware on Windows 8.1, a version of Windows that was still in mainstream support until January 2018. In addition, an enthusiast-created modification was released that disabled the check and allowed Windows 8.1 and earlier to continue to work on the platform. Windows 10 Creators Update and later does not support Intel Clover Trail system-on-chips, per Microsoft’s stated policy of only providing updates for devices during their OEM support period.

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